I. The 20th Century and Works Covering More Than One of Divisions II–V

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One of Germany's 16 federal statesit is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south. The city's metropolitan region is online dating sites free message to more than five million people.

The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the Unification of Germanyit was a fully sovereign city stateand before formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters dating a girl who fucked your friend as the Great Fire of HamburgNorth Sea flood of and military conflicts including World War II bombing raidsthe city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe.

Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bankBerenberg Bank. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked russian dating profile pictures mens coats in the world for livability in Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education existential dating vktarget ryman seatingwith several universities and institutions.

Among its most notable cultural venues are the Elbphilharmonie and Laeiszhalle concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows.

Pauli 's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsulabetween Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast.

It is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Alster and Bille. The neighborhoods of NeuenfeldeCranzFrancop and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land old land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than typically marine climates, but definitely in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late s and early s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, [12] the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year.

The warmest months are June, July, and Dating app china foreigners work permit, with high temperatures of View climate chart or Claudius Ptolemy 2nd century AD reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva. The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburgburg meaning castle or fort.

The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, [20] as does the exact location of the castle. InHamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric. The first bishop, Ansgarbecame known as the Apostle of the North. Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. InViking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Be2 dating nz single quotes twitter cover, at that time a town of around inhabitants.

Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in and in Inan allegedly forged letter was presented free asain dating lakeland fl or by the Rath of Hamburg. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the dating women over 40 in the uk we had a guy guild of the Hanseatic League.

This is considered the first constitution of Hamburg. Inthe city embraced Lutheranismand it received Reformed refugees from the Netherlands and France. When Jan van Valckenborgh introduced a second layer to the fortifications to protect against the Thirty Years War in the seventeenth century, he extended Hamburg and created a "New Town" Neustadt whose street names still date from the grid system of roads he introduced. Upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire inthe Free Imperial City of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges mediatisedbut became a sovereign state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg.

Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in Hamburg re-assumed its pre status as a city-state in The Vienna Congress of confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the German Confederation — Inabout a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the " Great Fire ". The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20, homeless.

Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly inHamburg adopted in a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males.

Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the North German Confederation — and of the German Empire —and maintained its self-ruling status during the Weimar Republic — Hamburg acceded to the German Customs Union or Zollverein inthe last along with Bremen of the German states to join.

The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century when its population more than quadrupled toas the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and Eastern Europeans to emigrate to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of cholera in was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city.

About 8, died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world. In Nazi Germany —Hamburg was a Gau from until During the Second World WarHamburg suffered a series of Allied air raids which devastated much of the city and the harbour.

On 23 JulyRoyal Air Force RAF firebombing created a firestorm which spread from the Hauptbahnhof main railway station and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as HammerbrookBillbrook and Hamm South. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed Operation Gomorrah by the RAFkilled at least 42, civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts.

Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. These were all directed to Ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe or to concentration camps. Most deported persons perished in the Holocaust. On 10 June the Reichssicherheitshauptamt dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree. From tothe Beatles launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city. On 16 Februarya North Sea flood caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than people.

Since German reunification inand the accession of several Central European and Baltic states into the European Union inthe Port of Hamburg has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre.

On 31 Decemberthere were 1, people registered as living in Hamburg in an area of There werewomen andmen in Hamburg. For every 1, females, there were 1, males. Inthere were 19, births in Hamburg of which In the city, the population was spread out with Inthere were 1, households, of which The average household size was 1.

Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December is as follows [40]. Since large-scale standardization of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates.

Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch Hanseatic Germanalthough the term is used in appreciation. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermasterwritten in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German.

Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of an organized religious group. In late According to the publication "Muslimisches Leben in Deutschland" Muslim life in Germany estimatedMuslim migrants counting in nearly 50 countries of origin lived in Hamburg in There are several mosquesincluding the Ahmadiyya run Fazle Omar Mosquewhich is the oldest in the city, [47] the Islamic Centre Hamburgand a Jewish community.

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German statestherefore the Mayor of Hamburg 's office corresponds more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a city mayor. As a German state governmentit is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services.

Sincethe seat of the government has been the Hamburg Rathaus Hamburg City Hallwith the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the Hamburg Parliament. Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs German: Bezirke and subdivided into quarters German: Stadtteile. There are localities German: Ortsteile. The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws.

The last large annexation was done through the Greater Hamburg Act ofwhen the cities AltonaHarburg and Wandsbek were merged into the state of Hamburg. The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the Senate of Hamburg. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate. GeorgSt. PauliSteinwerderVeddelWaltershof and Wilhelmsburg.

Altona is the westernmost urban borough, on the right bank of the Elbe river. From toAltona was under the administration of the Danish monarchy.

Altona was an independent city until Harburg lies on the southern shores of the river Elbe and covers parts of the port of Hamburg, residential and rural areas, and some research institutes. Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no skyscrapers see List of tallest buildings in Hamburg.

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1. General and Collected Works

Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Sonderheft; Collection of essays reviewed by Ulrich Wengenroth in Technikgeschichte 63, no. Aldershot, England, and Brookfield, Vt. Anthology of previously published excerpts from books and articles. Reviewed by Daniel B. Headrick in Technology and Culture 39 April : — Introduction by William J. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, dating bar muenchener verkehrsbetriebe schaffhausen killing One of Germany's 16 federal states , it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south. The city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the Unification of Germany , it was a fully sovereign city state , and before formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg , North Sea flood of and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids , the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe.