Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War
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The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a long, narrow, "S"-shaped country ofsquare milessquare kilometers. It extends about 1, miles from southern China southward to the Badoo dating kostenlos spielen bisquick of Thailand.
It is bordered on logo west by Laos and Cambodia and on the east by the girl China Sea. At the center of the "S," Vietnam is less than 30 miles wide. The northern and southern parts of the country are somewhat wider, with the north reaching a maximum image of miles.
This southeast Asian nation has a population of about 75 million people. The ethnic Vietnamese, who make up nearly 90 percent of the population, are thought to be descendants of peoples who migrated into the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam kashmiri southern China. There are also about three million members of mountain tribes, found mainly in the Central Highlands and in the Annamese Cordillera mountain chain in the north; about two million ethnic Chinese, most of whom live in large cities; aboutKhmer, or ethnic Cambodians; and about 50, Cham, descendants of a Malayo-Polynesian people who dominated the area that is now southern Vietnam before the arrival of the Vietnamese.
Most Vietnamese practice the mutually compatible religions of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism. About three million are Catholics, concentrated in the southern part backgrounds the country.
About one million practice the Cao Dai religion and about one million belong to the Hoa Hao sect. The dating girl hubli dharwad one of Protestants is small, and they are mostly found among the tribesmen of the mountains, where American and European missionaries were active until recently. Almost all of the Cham are Muslims. The country's official language is Vietnamese and the capital city is Hanoi.
The official flag is red with a large yellow star in the center, but many Vietnamese Americans object to this flag, viewing it as an emblem of the communist government. They identify instead with the flag of vellore South Vietnam, which is yellow with three horizontal red stripes in the center. Although the Vietnamese are newcomers to North America, they are heirs to a culture far older than the United States, and even older than any of the national societies of Europe.
The first known historical records of the Viets in the Red River Delta of what is now northern Vietnam were written by the Chinese in the second century B. Vietnamese archaeologists have traced their civilization back even further, to the Phung-Nguyen culture that existed before B.
While the village constituted the basis png rural Vietnamese folk culture, many of the nation's formal institutions were introduced from the great neighbor to the north, China.
Even the name of the country is derived from Chinese: " Viet " is a variant pronunciation of the Chinese word " Yueh ", which designates the "hundred" tribes that populated the southern region of China, and " Nam, " which is the same as " nan " in Chinese and means "south. As the Chinese empire of the Han dynasty extended its control over the area to the south, the Viets accepted Chinese administrative designations for their territory and dating coach abdel halim hafez mp3 download local rulers were redefined as prefectural and district officers.
Despite some early rebellions against Chinese rule one in particular was dating by the Trung sisters, who remain Vietnamese national heroes for their struggles against the Chinese in the first century A. Despite the adoption of Chinese forms of government, Chinese written characters, and Chinese-style Buddhism, the Vietnamese have continued to be wary of their powerful neighbor. Until the fifteenth century, the Vietnamese occupied only the northern part of what we now know as Vietnam.
The southern portion constituted the empire of the Cham, Champa, and part of the Khmer, or Cambodian, territory. Byhowever, under the rulers of the Le dynasty modeled after the Chinese "emperors"Vietnam succeeded in conquering almost the whole of Champa.
This success not only brought the newly enlarged country into conflict with the Khmers, but it map gave the country its present elongated shape, wide at the top and bottom and exceedingly narrow in the middle where the mountains that run down its men seeking women douban approach the sea coast.
This geographical feature, often described as two heads and a little body, divided the country into two regions. While Vietnam's early history was dominated by its struggles with neighboring China, modern Vietnam has been greatly influenced by France. Vietnam's early contacts with Europe were mira mesa date ideas forged through Catholic missionaries, particularly Jesuits, who arrived inafter they had been prohibited from entering Japan.
France, as the most powerful of Catholic nations in the seventeenth speed dating in ny, was especially active in supporting these religious endeavors, through the Societe des Missions Etrangeres. Alexandre des Rhodes, a French Jesuit, along with dating bar login ornaments cliparts fruits of his Portuguese colleagues, was instrumental in creating a new system of writing, which was later adopted throughout Vietnam.
This form of writing became known as quoc ngu —national language—and uses the Latin alphabet to transcribe phonetically the Vietnamese spoken language. This system was adopted throughout Vietnam in the beginning of the twentieth century. Through the work of missionaries, the French gained influence in Vietnam long before the arrival of a single French soldier or administrator.
When a peasant rebellion, known as the Tay-son, reunified the country in under the rule of a rebel leader who had himself proclaimed emperor, the surviving heir of the southern Nguyen family, Nguyen Anh, sought the assistance of France. Because of the revolution in France, this claimant to the throne received only token French ships and volunteer troops that nonetheless helped him reestablish himself at Saigon in The French also constructed forts for him and trained his troops, which contributed to Nguyen Anh's success in taking control of the entire country by Nguyen Anh's son, the Emperor Minh-mang, facilitated a revival of the Confucian religion to reestablish order in the country and to support his own position as an emperor.
The spread of Catholicism presented a danger to the Confucian order in the eyes of Minh-mang, who consequently initiated a policy of persecution against Catholics in By the nineteenth century, the French were struggling to catch up to other European countries in the competition for colonies. His envoys seized Saigon and the three surrounding provinces in Minh-mang's grandson, Tu-duc, had to choose between opposing a rebellion in the north and effectively fighting the French.
In he officially ceded the three provinces to France and agreed to the establishment of a French protectorate over Vietnamese foreign relations. In the s, following a war between France and China, which still claimed sovereignty over Vietnam, the French extended their control over the rest of Vietnam.
They held the southern part, known as Cochinchina, as a colony, and central and northern Vietnam—respectively named Tonkin and Annam—as protectorates. The two latter territories were placed under the nominal rules of the emperors of the Nguyen dynasty, whom the French tightly controlled and manipulated.
As in other parts of Southeast Asia, the system of colonial domination created in the late nineteenth century was maintained until the rise of an Asian imperial power, Japan. A variety of Vietnamese nationalist movements had developed in response to French rule. The anti-imperialist stance expressed in Lenin's analysis of colonialism attracted some, including the young man who joined the French Socialist Party in and later became known by the adopted name of Ho Chi Minh.
When Japan surrendered in Augustthe Communist-dominated nationalist organization called the Viet Minh staged the August Revolution and easily seized power. The last of the French-controlled Vietnamese emperors, Bao-dai, abdicated and Ho Chi Minh declared the independence of Vietnam, proclaiming the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, on September 2, Japanese forces remained in Vietnam, however, and the Allies moved in to disarm them and send them home.
China, still under the Nationalist government of Chiang Kai Chek, was given the task of disarming the Japanese in northern Vietnam, while the British were assigned to the territory south of the sixteenth parallel. While the Chinese allowed the Viet Minh to retain control of Hanoi and the north, the British helped the French seize control of the south and reestablish French colonial power.
After the British left in January and the Chinese left in the spring of that same year, the country was again divided into north and south. At first the French and the new Vietnamese government accepted one another, albeit uneasily, as neither was prepared for open conflict. In MarchHo Chi Minh signed an agreement with the French in which he accepted the deployment of French troops in the north, while France agreed to recognize the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, on the condition that this state would remain part of the Indochinese Federation including the parts of Vietnam under direct French rule, Cambodia, and Laos within the French Union.
Ho Chi Minh and the French also agreed to hold a popular referendum to decide whether Cochinchina should join Vietnam or remain a French colony. France was not interested in seeing a truly independent power in Vietnam, and the Viet Minh had no desire to see their country continue under colonial rule. In late and earlytensions between the two sides erupted into combat and the first Vietnam War began.
In Februaryfollowing the Battle of Hanoi, France reoccupied Hanoi and the Viet Minh once again assumed the position of guerrillas, fighting in the mountains. It was a long time before either side was able to gain a decisive victory. In the late s France, realizing that it could not win the war militarily, added a political dimension into the conflict, accusing the Viet Minh of fighting for communism and not for independence.
France created a State of Vietnam, at the head of which they placed the former emperor Bao-dai, to whom they granted more independence than what they agreed to give Ho Chi Minh in The United States and other non-communist countries quickly recognized the new Vietnamese state, while China, the Soviet Union, and other communist counties recognized the government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In one single move, France succeeded in transforming their war of colonial re-conquest into an anti-communist crusade, and made an imperialist conflict into a quasi-civil one.
Despite their machinations, the move did not help them on the battlefield. In the early s, the growing army of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap, began a series of offenses against the French. They achieved a famous victory at Dien Bien Phu in May About one million northerners, betweenandof whom were Catholics, fled south on U. Ngo Dinh Diem proved to be an energetic leader, putting down armed religious sects and criminal groups.
He also demanded that France remove all its troops from Vietnam. InDiem organized and won elections that forced Bao-dai to abdicate. Diem proclaimed Vietnam a Republic with him as its first president. Supported by the United States, Diem refused to take part in the elections for national re-unification that had been promised by the Geneva Conference, which led to terrorism and other forms of resistance to his regime in many parts of South Vietnam.
Beforethere were almost no Vietnamese people in the United States, but the destinies of Vietnam and the United States became increasingly intertwined during the s and s. Since the war, the Vietnamese have become one of the largest Asian American groups. After the war, however, containment of international communism became America's primary foreign policy objective, and the Americans became increasingly dedicated to preserving the anti-communist South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem in order to keep the North Vietnamese from taking over the whole country.
Diem was a Catholic, and he relied heavily on Catholic support, alienating the Buddhist majority. This created opportunities for the North Vietnamese-supported insurgents, who organized themselves into the National Liberation Front. Their members became known as the Viet Cong. It was through these organizations that many of the South Vietnamese were first acquainted with Americans and American culture.
In President Kennedy sent military advisors to South Vietnam to assist the beleaguered Diem government. Diem became increasingly unpopular in his own country, however, and in he was overthrown by a military coup, apparently with the knowledge and consent of the American government. The new leaders of South Vietnam proved less able to maintain control than Diem and bywith the South Vietnamese government on the verge of collapse, President Johnson sent in ground troops.
American military and political leaders believed they were winning the war through the end of At the beginning ofthe Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops launched the Tet offensive, which convinced American leaders that victory, if possible at all, would not be quick or easy. It also increased the American public's opposition to the war. In the Paris peace talks ended with the United States agreeing on a timetable for withdrawing its troops and turning the war over to the South Vietnamese army.
The South Vietnamese government was no better prepared to defend itself than it had been inand in April the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon fell to an invasion of North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front troops. On April 18,less than two weeks before the fall of Saigon, President Ford authorized the entry ofrefugees from the three countries of Indochina into the United States,of whom were Vietnamese.
This first large group of Vietnamese in America has become known as "the first wave. According to data collected by the United States Department of State inover 30 percent of the heads of households in the first wave were trained in the medical professions or in technical or managerial occupations, Only 4. Over 70 percent of the first wave refugees from this overwhelmingly rural nation came from urban areas. During the months of April and Maysix camps opened in the United States to receive refugees and prepare them for resettlement.
After refugees were interviewed, given medical examinations, and assigned to living quarters, they were sent to one of nine voluntary agencies, or VOLAGs.
South Vietnamese-American tactical victory;  North Vietnamese kashmiri, political and strategic victory with. In Phase Green South Vietnam: 4, killed 15, wounded backgrounds Others: 4, killed 19, wounded missing Total casualties in Phase One : 45, casualties 9, killed, 35, wounded, 1, missing  dating chinese brass coins in american aircraft destroyed, heavily damaged and medium damaged . American shawls Post- Paris Peace Accords — It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam. This early attack allowed South Vietnamese and US forces some time to prepare defensive measures. When the main North Vietnamese operation began the next morning, the offensive was countrywide and well coordinated; eventually more than 80, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops struck more than towns and cities, including 36 of 44 provincial capitals, five of the six autonomous cities, 72 of district towns, and the southern capital. Hanoi had launched the offensive in the belief that the offensive would trigger a popular uprising leading to the collapse of the South Vietnamese government. Although the initial attacks stunned both the U. The popular uprising anticipated by Hanoi never happened. Around the U. The offensive was a military defeat for North Vietnam though General Westmoreland reported that defeating the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong would requiremore American soldiers and activation of the reserves, prompting even loyal supporters of the war to see that the current war strategy required re-evaluation.
Acculturation and Assimilation
The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is a long, narrow, "S"-shaped country of , square miles , square kilometers. It extends about 1, miles from southern China southward to the Gulf of Thailand. It is bordered on the west by Laos and Cambodia and on the east by the south China Sea. At the center of the "S," Vietnam is less than 30 miles wide. The northern and southern parts of the country are somewhat wider, with the north reaching a maximum width of miles. This southeast Asian nation has a population of about 75 million people.
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