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Pakistan has a 1,kilometre mile coastline along the Arabian Sea and Chinese of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran yonghwa dating newspapers of the world the southwest, and China in the northeast.
It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined dating haram in islam the history of the broader Indian subcontinent.
Initially a dominionPakistan adopted a constitution inbecoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. A regional    and middle power   Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world coversations for christian dating couples have that status.
Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector.
The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulationterrorismpovertyilliteracyand corruption. The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a night dating singaporeans overseas jobs of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.
The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the dating vietnam full documentaries reddit politics rising. During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts.
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Pakistan in politics.
Fazlul Haquepopularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. Thus, the election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League. The Congresswhich initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact. However, the British did not want British India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.
As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in — In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that betweenand 2,       people were dating video gana bhojpuri youtube hd new song in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions  dating for dummies relationships synonyms for happy while 50, American girl dating profile women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33, Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.
After independence inJinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September With senior dating greensboro nc department status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.
The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten. Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmania respected Deobandi alim scholar who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan inand Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution.
Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty dating whatsapp group link in kenya God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.
A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama dating balita sa asya 2019 printable calendar the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust".
The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of, and Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirzadating violence traduzione tedesco inglese fuel pressure was replaced by army chiefGeneral Ayub Khan.
After adopting a presidential system inthe country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale dating business cycles economics times technical chart for stocks disapproval in In Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Dating whatsapp group link south africa Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party PPPYahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.
Independent researchers estimate that betweenandcivilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million,  a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated. Rose believe there was no genocide. With Pakistan surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy.
Democratic rule resumed from to —an era of self- consciousnessintellectual leftismnationalismand nationwide reconstruction. Democracy ended with a military coup in against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in From toPresident Zia's corporatisation and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.
President Zia died in a plane crash inand Benazir Bhuttodaughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country's first female Prime Minister. The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League Nand over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the s.
This period is marked by prolonged stagflationinstability, corruptionnationalismgeopolitical rivalry with Indiaand the clash of left wing - right wing ideologies. When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 Novemberthe new elections were called by the Election Commission.
The idea of Pakistan, which had received overwhelming popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the provinces of British India where Muslims were in a minority such as the United Provinces was articulated in terms of an Islamic state by the Muslim League leadership, the ulama Islamic clergy and Jinnah. The Objectives Resolution in Marchwhich declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.
However, Pakistan's pan-Islamist sentiments for a united Islamic bloc called Islamistan were not shared by other Muslim governments,  although Islamists such as the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhoodbecame drawn to the country.
Pakistan's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the s when the Organization of Islamic Conference OIC was formed. The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan  whose educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic identity.
After Pakistan's first ever general elections the Constitution was created by an elected Parliament. It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions could be enacted.
Pakistan's leftist Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which coalesced into a movement united under the revivalist banner of Nizam-e-Mustafa "Rule of the prophet "  which aimed to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia laws. Bhutto agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup.
The geography and climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife. It is the 33rd-largest nation by total areaalthough this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted.
Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus—Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian platemainly on the Iranian plateau. Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region. Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain, and the Balochistan Plateau.
There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in the Punjab and Sindh. The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all.
There are four distinct seasons in Pakistan: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as sprucepineand deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country for example, the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountainsto palms such as coconut and date in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh.
The western hills are home to junipertamariskcoarse grasses, and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south. Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1, to 4, metres 3, to 13, feet in most of the northern and northwestern highlands. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands.
These forests are mostly of mulberryacaciaand eucalyptus. The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country's varied climate. Around bird species are found there,   including crowssparrowsmynashawksfalconsand eagles.
Palas, Kohistanhas a significant population of western tragopan. The southern plains are home to mongoosessmall Indian civethares, the Asiatic jackalthe Indian pangolinthe jungle catand the desert cat.
There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boardeer, porcupinesand small rodents in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenaswildcats, and leopards.
The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan—India border and in some parts of Cholistan. The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.
The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues. Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation. The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialismconservatismand the third way.
As of the general elections held inthe three main political parties in the country are: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N ; the centre-left socialist PPP; and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement for Justice PTI. As the Muslim world 's second most populous nation-state after Indonesia and its only nuclear powerPakistan has an important role in the international community.
Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory. Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.
Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s, and during the Soviet—Afghan War in the s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States. A close ally of the United States during the Cold warPakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.
Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ;  nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas. Pakistan was the first country to have established formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of Chinaand the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India informing a special relationship.
Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas. After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries  and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim worldor at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity. Such developments along with Pakistan's creation did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.
Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Moroccoand Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan. Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.
On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions.
Pakistan has a 1,kilometre mile coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to dating website news softwareserial h download east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also newsletters a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several dating cafe moenchengladbach photosynthesis meaning for kids cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. Initially a dominionPakistan adopted a constitution inbecoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. A regional    and middle power   Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulationterrorismpovertyilliteracyand corruption. The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian.
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Iain Neill, Andrew C. Kerr, Alan R. Hastie, James L. Pindell, Ian L. An elemental and radiogenic isotope study of Cretaceous island arc rocks on Tobago, West Indies, reveals the magmatic processes taking place at the eastern edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during development of the Greater Antilles Arc. The suite is inferred to have formed from a spinel lherzolite mantle wedge source fluxed largely by slab- and recycled volcanogenic sediment-derived fluids.